LIGHTING SAFETY TESTS

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In order to sell each product produced in national and international markets, it must have met certain standards. These standards have been accepted by certain authorities and manufacturers must produce in accordance with these standards. However, it is not enough for producers to produce in accordance with these standards. For this reason, independent laboratories that have met certain conditions and whose methods have been accepted by these authorities control the products in a neutral manner with the desired tests in the standards that they actually meet these requirements. Reports are prepared by these laboratories according to the relevant standard and the suitability of the product is confirmed.

In this article, we will discuss the standards of the above-mentioned processes in lighting products and the necessary information about the contents of these standards.

Our main standard for lighting products is TS EN 60598-1 standard. If we look at the content of this standard, it is the basic standard with safety tests and inspections that can be applied to all lighting products in general. The main title of the standard is "TS EN 60598-1 Fixtures- Part 1: General rules and experiments". As we can understand from the title of the standard, since this standard is the main standard, it has general rules in it. However, since lighting groups have very different constructions, there are additional standards for each product group with specific characteristics for these products. These additional standards include additional tests that must be applied for each group. These tests are specific tests and when these products arrive, their tests should be carried out according to these standards. If we take a look at the most used additional standards, a ranking will occur as follows.

  • TS 8698 EN 60598-2-1 Lighting Fixtures Part 2: Special Rules – Part One : General Purpose, Fixed
  • TS EN 60598-2-2 Lighting fixtures – Part 2-2: Special rules – Recessed fixtures
  • TS 8700 EN 60598-2-3 Lighting Fixtures – Part 2-3: Specific Features – For Road and Street Lighting
  • TS EN 60598-2-4 Lighting fixtures-Part 2:Special rules-Part 4: General purpose, portable
  • TS EN 60598-2-5 Lighting fixtures – Part 2: Special rules – Part 5: Projectors
  • TS EN 60598-2-8 Lighting fixtures – Part 2-8: Special rules – Hand lamps
  • TS EN 60598-2-20 Lighting fixtures – Part 2-20: Related features – Lighting chains
  • TS EN 60598-2-22 Lighting fixtures – Part 2-22: Special rules – Emergency lighting fixtures

Before we move on to the contents of these standards, we need to take a look at the scope and content of our main standard, TS EN 60598-1. We will then review the details of these standards.

TS EN 60598-1
A lot of attention should be paid to what standard a product should be made before testing. In order for the product to be tested to the right standard, the scope of the standard is found in the introduction of all standards. For this purpose, it is necessary to start examining the standard first. When we look at the scope of TS EN 60598-1 standard, we see the following statements.

'' This standard covers general rules regarding fixtures that work with supply voltages up to 1000 V, combined with electrical light sources. Related experiments and rules of this standard include classification, marking, mechanical construction, electrical construction and photobiological safety. ‘’

As we can understand from this statement, when selecting the sample to be tested, the working voltage of the sample must be below 1000 V and it must be a final product combined with electrical light sources. Because there are many components in an armatur. For example, the sections that make up the fixture are different components such as feed cable, hear, armature special bulb, led, driver, clams, etc. Each of these components has its own standards and must be tested according to these standards. However, it is not enough that the components are tested only according to their own standards. Since the components used together in the construction of the armature form an armature, it should be checked with the armature standard TS EN 60598-1 to work in harmony with other components.

If we examine the contents of TS EN 60598-1 standard item by item;

Article 2- Classification ; All fixtures have a certain class according to the construction. In this article, it is decided how the tests should be carried out by determining the classes of the fixtures and how the remaining substances of the standard should be applied.

Article 3- Marking : All fixtures must have a label with technical characteristics, manufacturer's declarations and briefly introducing the fixture. This article describes what information should be on the labels that should be used in fixtures and what information should be included in the usage manuals that should be prepared in addition to the label. In addition, the tests to which the labels and markings used on the fixture will be subjected are explained in this article.

Article 4- Construction : This article has rules regarding the construction characteristics of the fixture. When producing an armature, it must be produced by paying attention to the properties contained in this substance. Luminaire manufacturers should pay special attention to this article of the TS EN 60598-1 standard. Because when the properties in this article related to construction are provided, the fixture has a more durable construction for the tests in the rest of the standard. Mechanical strengths of the lamp senses used in the content of this substance, how the connection tip blocks should be used, what conditions the switches used should meet, mechanical strength of the screws used, mechanical strength of the hanger apparatus, what conditions the plastic materials used should meet, corrosion resistance of metal sections used in fixtures with IP protection, vibration resistance of heavy duty fixtures, light there are tests of the photobiological hazards of their sources and many other construction rules. Fixtures must provide all protections related to the construction of this article.

Article 5- External and internal cabing: Cables used in fixtures must meet certain requirements. In this article, the cables used in the feed cables and internal connections of the fixture should be made with which type of cables and the characteristics of these cables are included. In the same way, the cables along with the fixture are retested in this substance.

Article 7- Grounding arrangements: Fixtures with grounding schemes evaluated as Class I are tested according to the requirements of this substance. Within the scope of this article, there are tests to check how to make grounding on the fixture, the material of the grounding connections used, the fixation and the reach of grounding all over the fixture.

Article 8- Protection against electric shock: This article of the standard is intended to protect the user completely. During use, the absence of any short circuits or tension sections that may occur on the outer surfaces that the luminaire user will come into contact with is controlled by the tests contained in this article.

Article 9- Resistance to dust, solid objects and moisture: This article of the standard refers to the TS 3033 EN 60529 standard. This article explains how samples should be tested according to IP levels. The IP level is expressed as two digits and the first figure represents protection against solid objects and the second figure represents protection against liquid inlet. These levels are described in detail in the TS 3033 EN 60529 standard. However, there are some changes when applying to fixtures. These changes are described in this article of the standard and the samples are tested according to their IP levels as described in this article. In addition to IP tests, there is also a moisture resistance test with certain conditions in this article.

Article 10- Insulation resistance, electrical strength, contact current and protection conductive current: This item is one of the most important items of the standard. Electrical insulation of fixtures is controlled in this substance. If the components used do not provide adequate insulation, serious problems may occur for the user in the fixture, so the tests in this substance are very important. Insulation resistance and high voltage measurements in the standard should be applied in accordance with the class of each sample in the conditions described in this article. In addition, the measurement of leakage current on the fixture is measured as described in this article and checked to see if it is below certain limits.

Article 11- Superficial leakage path lengths and insulation intervals: This article of the standard refers to the IEC 60664-1 standard. Superficial leakage path lengths include measuring the distances of the conductive sections on the fixture so that they are not in a way that endangers the user. There are a lot of situations that need to be considered in order to make these measurements, and they are explained in full detail in this article of the standard.

Article 12- Endurance test and thermal test: In this article of the standard, fixtures are tested for thermal durability according to the operating temperatures declared by their manufacturers. According to the characteristics of each fixture, it must be undergone this experiment. In addition, the fixtures are operated in certain unusual conditions, checking the parts where a warming may occur in a way that impairs the safety of the fixture.

Article 13- Resistance to heat, fire and arc scar formation: This article of the standard covers ball pressure testing, flush wire testing, needle flame test and anti-arc trace tests. Although these tests have their own standards, which parts of the fixtures should be applied and in what cases are described in this article. In terms of construction, the selection of plastic sections on the fixture for these tests is made according to this article. As a result of the tests in this article, the degree to which the plastic materials of the sample are sufficiently resistant to heat and fire are checked in case of consent in the sample.

Article 14- Screw connectors : In this article, it is explained which type of screw fasteners should be used in the construction of fixtures. In addition, how the connection ends used should be tested according to their type and how they should be assembled according to the luminaire class are also explained in this article.

Article 15- Screw-free connectors and electrical connections: In this article, it is explained which type of screwless connection ends should be used in the construction of fixtures. In addition, how the connection ends used should be tested according to their type and how they should be assembled according to the luminaire class are also explained in this article.

As you can see, the TS EN 60598-1 standard is generally a very general standard in which all characteristics of an armatur are checked. All lighting products must meet the requirements of this standard. In addition, they must undergo additional tests according to their own standards classified in addition to this standard, as described before moving to the substances.

If we need to briefly explain which product groups are included in the specific standards accepted as the second part of the standard, a classification such as the following emerges.

ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE EXPERIMENTS

Environmental resilience tests are applied according to the main standard, TS EN 60068-1. If we take a look at the coverage, it sets various conditions for evaluating the performance of test samples under the expected conditions in all types of business use, transportation and storage, including environmental conditions resilience testing methods and related severity.

In general, the experimental conditions in the TS EN 60068-1 standard;

  • The ability to operate within the specified limits of temperature, pressure, humidity, mechanical coercion or other environmental conditions and combinations of these conditions,
  • Ability to withstand transportation, storage and assembly requirements. information about .

In addition to the main standard;

  • TS EN 60068-2-1 Environmental Conditions Resistance Experiments -Part 2-1: Experiments – Experiment A: Cold
  • TS EN 60068-2-2 Environmental resistance experiments – part 2-2: Experiments – Experiment b:Dry temperature

Their standards, on the other hand, contain a variety of environmental conditions in their content.

TS EN 60068-2-1:
This standard covers cold experiments of heat-emitting and non-heat-emitting test samples. The purpose of the cold experiment is to measure the reactions of components, devices or other parts used, transported or stored at low temperatures in these environments and decide their suitability. There are temperatures and durations set in the standard for experiments. Temperatures between -5°C and 65°C and 2, 16, 72 and 96 hours are defined. However, according to the manufacturer's declaration, these values and durations can be changed on a product basis and the suitability of the sample can be tested for these conditions.

TS EN 60068-2-2This
standard covers dry temperature experiments that can be applied to both heat-emitting and non-heat-emitting test samples. The purpose of the dry temperature experiment is to measure the reactions of components, devices or other substances used, transported or stored at high temperatures in these environments and decide their suitability. There are temperatures and durations set in the standard for experiments. Temperatures between +50°C and 1000°C and 2, 16 , 72, 96, 168, 240, 336 and 1000 hours are defined. However, according to the manufacturer's declaration, these values and durations can be changed on a product basis and the suitability of the sample can be tested for these conditions.

Within the scope of our laboratory, cold experiments can be applied up to -10 °C and dry hot experiments up to +150°C.

TS EN 62262
TS EN 62262 standard The degree of protection provided by the housings – The IK Code has the necessary requirements for the protection of electrical equipment against external mechanical impacts. This standard covers the classification of the degree of protection provided by the housings against external mechanical impacts in cases where the declaration voltage of the protected equipment is not greater than 72.5 kV.

The tests of the samples according to the relevant IK code according to the manufacturer's declaration are carried out according to this standard. IK codes range from 01 to 10. The pulse energy values corresponding to each code are determined in the standard. In the same way, the conditions under which these pulse energies should be applied and which parts of the samples should be applied are also explained in this standard.

In general, the degree of protection applies to a complete enclosedhold. Sections of the enclosedsings should be specified separately if they have different degrees of protection.

Samples are tested according to the degree of protection declared by their manufacturers and their compliance with this standard is checked.

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